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  Vespa No2  

  Vespa No2  
Vespa No2
Specification (cm): 30x12x17



Post World War II Italy, in light of its agreement to cessation of war activities with the Allies, had its aircraft industry severely restricted in both capability and capacity.

Piaggio emerged from the conflict with its Pontedera fighter plane plant completely demolished by bombing. Italy's crippled economy and the disastrous state of the roads did not assist in the re-development of the automobile markets. Enrico Piaggio, the son of Piaggio's founder Rinaldo Piaggio, decided to leave the aeronautical field in order to address Italy's urgent need for a modern and affordable mode of transportation for the masses.

[edit] Concept

The inspiration for the design of the Vespa dates back to Pre-WWII Cushman scooters made in Nebraska, USA. These olive green scooters were in Italy in large numbers, ordered originally by Washington as field transport for the Paratroops and Marines. The US military had used them to get around Nazi defense tactics of destroying roads and bridges in the Dolomites (a section of the Alps) and the Austrian border areas.

Pre-war Piaggio employee Aeronautical engineer General Corradino D'Ascanio, responsible for the design and construction of the first modern helicopter by Agusta, was given the job of designing a simple, robust and affordable vehicle for Ferdinando Innocenti, whose pre-war metal tubing business Innocenti had suffered the same fate as Piaggio post-war. Innocenti defined a post-war vehicle to D'Ascanio that had to be easy to drive for both men and women, be able to carry a passenger, and not get its driver's clothes dirty.

[edit] Design

D'Ascanio, who hated motorbikes, designed a revolutionary vehicle. It was built on a spar-frame with a handlebar gear change, and the engine mounted directly on to the rear wheel. The front protection "shield" kept the rider dry and clean in comparison to the open front end on motorcycles. The pass-through leg area design was geared towards all user groups, including women, as wearing dresses or skirts made riding a motorcycle a challenge. The front fork, like an aircraft's landing gear, allowed for easy wheel changing. The internal mesh transmission eliminated the standard motorcycle chain, a source of oil, dirt, and aesthetic misery. This basic design allowed a series of features to be deployed on the frame, which would later allow quick development of new models.

However, D'Ascanio had a falling-out with Innocenti, who rather than a molded and beaten spar-frame wanted to produce his Innocenti frame from rolled tubing, thereby allowing him to revive both parts of his pre-War company. D'Ascanio disassociated himself with Innocenti, and took his design to Enrico Piaggio to produce the spar-framed Vespa from 1946.[2] Innocenti, after overcoming design difficulties and later production difficulties through his choice of a tubular frame, went on to produce the more costly Lambretta line of motorscooters.


Glove box on newer Vespa PX

On 23 April 1946, at 12 o'clock in the central office for inventions, models and makes of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce in Florence, Piaggio e C. S.p.A. took out a patent for a "motorcycle of a rational complexity of organs and elements combined with a frame with mudguards and a casing covering the whole mechanical part".[3]

The basic patented design allowed a series of features to be deployed on the spar-frame which would later allow quick development of new models. The original Vespa featured a rear pillion seat for a passenger, or optionally a storage compartment. The original front protection "shield" was a flat piece of aero metal; later this developed in to a twin skin to allow additional storage behind the front shield, similar to the glove compartment in a car. The fuel cap was located underneath the (hinged) seat, which saved the cost of an additional lock on the fuel cap or need for additional metal work on the smooth skin.

The scooter had rigid rear suspension and small 8-inch (200 mm) wheels that allowed a compact design and plenty of room for the rider's legs. The Vespa's enclosed, horizontally-mounted two-stroke 98 cc engine acted directly on the rear drive wheel through a three-speed transmission. The twistgrip-controlled gear change involved a system of rods. The early engine had no cooling, but fan blades were soon attached to the flywheel (otherwise known as the magneto, which houses the points and generates electricity for the bike and for the engine's spark) to push air over the cylinder's cooling fins. The modern Vespa engine is still cooled this way. The mixture of two-stroke oil in the fuel produced high amounts of smoke, and the engine made a high buzzing sound like a wasp.

[edit] Name

The first prototype was given the initials MP5 and baptized "Paperino," the Italian name for Donald Duck, a nick-name given to it by the workers because of the strange shape it had. Enrico Piaggio did not like the design and asked D'Ascanio to redesign it—which he did with a more aeronautical-derived aerodynamic look.[3]

When the second prototype called MP6, was shown to Enrico Piaggio and he heard the buzzing sound of the engine he exclaimed: "Sembra una vespa!" ("It resembles a wasp!") The name stuck.[4]

Vespa is both Latin and Italian for wasp—derived from both the high-pitched noise of the two-stroke engine, and adopted as a name for the vehicle in reference to its body shape: the thicker rear part connected to the front part by a narrow waist, and the steering rod resembled antennae.

Ape (pronounced Ah-pay), is Italian for bee. This was the three-wheeled variant used for commercial purposes, including the popular auto rickshaw.

[edit] Launch

Piaggio filed a patent for the Vespa scooter design in April 1946. The application documents referred to a "model of a practical nature" for a "motorcycle with rationally placed parts and elements with a frame combining with mudguards and engine-cowling covering all working parts", of which "the whole constitutes a rational, comfortable motorcycle offering protection from mud and dust without jeopardizing requirements of appearance and elegance". The patent was approved the following December.

The first 13 examples appeared in spring 1946, and reveal their aeronautical background. In the first examples, one can recognize the typical aircraft technology. Attention to aerodynamics is evident in all the design, in particular on the tail. It was also one of the first vehicles to use monocoque construction (where the body is an integral part of the chassis).

The company was aiming to manufacture the new Vespa in large numbers, and their longstanding industrial experience led to an efficient Ford-style volume production line. The scooter was presented to the press at Rome Golf Club, where journalists were apparently mystified by the strange, pastel coloured, toy-like object on display. But the road tests were encouraging, and even with no rear suspension the machine was more manoeuvrable and comfortable to ride than a traditional motorcycle.

Following its public debut at the 1946 Milan Fair, the first fifty sold slowly—then with the introduction of payment by installments, sales took off.

[edit] Sales and development

Original Vespa attached to a sidecar

Piaggio sold some 2,500 Vespas in 1947, over 10,000 in 1948, 20,000 in 1949, and over 60,000 in 1950.[5]

The biggest sales promo ever was Hollywood. In 1952, Audrey Hepburn side-saddled Gregory Peck's Vespa in the feature film Roman Holiday for a ride through Rome, resulting in over 100,000 sales. In 1956, John Wayne dismounted his horse in favor of the two-wheeler to originally get between takes on sets.[6] By the end of the fifties, Lucia Bosé and her husband, the matador Luis Miguel Dominguín,[7] as well as Marlon Brando, Dean Martin, and the entertainer Abbe Lane had become Vespa owners. William Wyler filmed Ben Hur in Rome in 1959, allowing Charlton Heston to abandon horse and chariot between takes to take a spin on the Vespa.[8][9]

Vespa clubs popped up throughout Europe, and by 1952, worldwide Vespa Club membership had surpassed 50,000. By the mid-1950s, Vespas were being manufactured under licence in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and Spain; in the 1960s, production was started in India, Brazil and Indonesia. By 1956, one million had been sold, then two million by 1960. By the 1960s, the Vespa—originally conceived as a utility vehicle—had come to symbolize freedom and imagination, and resulted in further sales boosts: four million by 1970, and ten million by the late 1980s. Between 1957 and 1961 a reverse-engineered and partially redesigned version of the Vespa was made in USSR under the name Vjatka-VP150.[10]

Improvements were made to the original design and new models were introduced. The 1948 Vespa 125 had rear suspension and a bigger engine. The headlamp was moved up to the handlebars in 1953, and had more engine power and a restyled rear fairing. A cheaper spartan version was also available. One of the best-loved models was the Vespa 150 GS introduced in 1955 with a 150 cc engine, a long saddle, and the faired handlebar-headlamp unit. Then came the 50 cc of 1963, and in 1968 Vespa 125 Primavera became one of the most durable of all.

T5 Millennium from the PX series

Vespas came in two sizes, referred to as "largeframe" and "smallframe". The smallframe scooters came in 50cc, 90cc, 100 cc, and 125 cc versions, all using an engine derived from the 50 cc model of 1963, and the largeframe scooters in 125cc,150cc,160cc,180cc and 200 cc displacements using engines derived from the redesigned 125 cc engine from the late 50's.

The largeframe Vespa evolved into the PX range (produced in 125 and 150 cc versions until July 2007) in the late '70s. The smallframe evolved into the PK range in the early '80s, although some vintage-styled smallframes were produced for the Japanese market as late as the mid 1990s.

[edit] 1990s and beyond

By the early 1990s, Vespa was in crisis. Its models were selling slowly; two-strokes were being withdrawn around the world due to environmental concerns; new Asian manufacturers were stealing market share with cheaper/lighter bikes; and cars were very cheap. As a result, sales had fallen and production in Europe had been pulled back to Italy. Vespa needed a miracle—and a new model, beyond the PX.

The ET model range stuck true to the wasp/aero design principles. It was lighter, more aerodynamic, had an automatic gearbox and could take a series of engines from a 50 cc in either two-stroke or four-stroke, up to a 150 cc four stroke.[11] Plus, it was launched when traffic congestion in major European cities was on the increase, so the smaller wheel size didn't matter. It was a complete success, and allowed Vespa to re-enter the North American market in 2001 with a new, more modern style.

When Vespa celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1996, more than 15 million of the scooters had been sold worldwide, making it the most successful scooter of all time. Other companies vied with Piaggio for market share, but none came close to emulating the success—or romance—of Vespa. The nostalgic image of Vespa, however, could not hide the fact that Vespa was making a loss.

[edit] Under new ownership

In 2003, the company found itself close to bankruptcy. Continual management changes and millions spent on many different plans and products had saddled Piaggio with crushing debt and left it vulnerable to competition from cheaper Asian rivals.

In 1959 Piaggio came under the control of the Agnelli family, the owners of car maker Fiat SpA. Vespa thrived until 1992 when Giovanni Alberto Agnelli became CEO, but Agnelli was already suffering from cancer and died in 1997. In 1999 Morgan Grenfell Private Equity acquired Piaggio, but a quickly hoped-for sale was dashed by a failed joint venture in China.

Then came Roberto Colaninno: A lot of people told me I was crazy. Piaggio wasn't dying. It just needed to be treated better. Piaggio's finances were in a bad shape, but its brand was still well-known and its products were featuring in more Hollywood films thanks to the Vespa ET4. In October 2003 Colaninno made an initial investment of 100 million euros through his holding company Immsi SpA in exchange for just under a third of Piaggio and the mandate to run it. Chief executive Rocco Sabelli redesigned the factory to Japanese principles so that every Piaggio scooter could be made on any assembly line.

Colaninno laid down some rules and made quick changes; all bonuses for blue-collar workers and management were based on the same criteria: profit margins and customer satisfaction. He didn't fire a single worker—a move which helped seduce the company's skeptical unions. Air conditioning was installed in the factory and he gave the company's engineers, who had been idled by the company's financial crisis, deadlines for projects. They rolled out two world firsts in 2004: a gas-electric hybrid scooter and a scooter with two wheels in front and one in back which grips the road better.

One of Piaggio's problems Mr. Colaninno couldn't fix from the inside was its scale. Even though Piaggio was the European market leader, it was dwarfed by rivals Honda and Yamaha. A year after rescuing Piaggio, Colaninno decided to salvage another Italian brand: scooter and motorcycle maker Aprilia. On July 11, 2006, shares of Piaggio & Co., became available to the general public through listing on the Milan [Italy] Stock Exchange or Borsa Italiana. Piaggio share prices, converted to US Dollars, may be found under the trading symbol: PIAGF.

[edit] Re-entry to North America

Piaggio first came back into the market in 2001 with the ET2 (two stroke 50cc) and ET4 (four stroke 150cc). In 2004, the PX (model year 2005) was re-introduced to North America to meet market demand for the classic Vespa design. Growth in the US market and worldwide environmental concerns meant the need for larger and cleaner engines, so Vespa developed the LEADER (Low Emissions ADvanced Engine Range) series of four stroke engines. The larger Granturismo frame, with larger 12-inch (300 mm) wheels, was introduced to handle the additional power. The bike in 2006 spawned a GTS250ie version, with an upgraded suspension and the new QUASAR (QUarter-liter Smooth Augmented Range) 250cc fuel injected engine, capable of 80+ mph. In 2005, the ET was withdrawn from Europe and North America and replaced by a new small-frame scooter, the LX range. These were available in the USA in 50 cc and 150 cc versions, while Europeans could choose a 50 cc or 125 cc.

[edit] Design icon

Modified Vespa as popular in the mods/skinhead culture.

With its elegant lines and classic aesthetics, the Vespa is recognized as the epitome of Italian design. In recent years, many urban commuters have purchased new or restored Vespas. A shortage of available parking for automobiles in large urban areas and the Vespa's low running costs are two reasons for the increase in Vespa (and other scooter) popularity. The cultural use of the scooter as a recreational vehicle with a sub-cultural following in the USA/Canada and parts of Europe & Japan has also contributed to the rise in Vespa ownership. In contrast, the Vespa is considered a utilitarian vehicle for hauling products and sometimes up to 5 family members in much of Asia and Mexico

Vespa enthusiasts can visit the comprehensive Piaggio Museum & Gift Shop adjacent to the plant in central Pontedera, near Pisa, Tuscany. The permanent exhibition includes those items which toured prestigious venues such as the Guggenheim in New York and the Centre Pompidou in Paris. Also on display is, perhaps, the most famous Vespa of them all—the one personally customised by Salvador Dalí in 1962. The helpful museum staff speak English.

[edit] Global markets

[edit] Europe

Vespa's largest market by all measures globally is still Italy, but as a result of the mod subculture that developed in the 1960s, the United Kingdom is still Vespa's second largest global market—and at one point in the 1960s, its largest. The appeal of the Vespa to the style-conscious mods was the weather protection. Their counterparts, the rockers rode classic British motorcycles such as Triumph Bonneville and BSAs, and needed to dress up in leather against both the elements and their oily bikes. Mods would modify their Vespas, adding lights, mascots, accessories, various racks and crash bars. A new lifestyle evolved in the UK, with thousands attending scooter rallies.

The dominance of the Vespa declined through the 1970s, as small car ownership increased and cheap and reliable commuter bikes like the Honda Super Cub hit sales. Despite the introduction of the more modern 'P' range in the 1970s, the lack of development cost Vespa, and like other markets, the sales fell off drastically in the economic boom of the 1980s. Then Vespa introduced the trendy automatic ET2, London introduced the congestion charge and—partly with celebrity chef Jamie Oliver's indirect help from his BBC2 series—sales suddenly leapt.[12]

[edit] North America

A Vespa Boutique in San Francisco

Much as Vespa had used the Cushman Army scooter as inspiration for its original design, Vespa in turn also made scooters for Sears and Cushman post World War II.[13]

Imported by Morton Colby of Colby General Tire Company, 662 E. Fordham Road, Bronx, New York, the Sears models were 3 and 4 speed 125 cc Vespas rebadged as Sears Allstate Cruiseaires. Innocenti also distributed their Lambretta brand via Montgomery Wards catalogue at this post WWII period. These were the premier brands of scooters, bringing premium pricing to many, including farmers, whose link to the outside world was via purchases made in these catalogues. Cushman sold rebadged Vespa scooters as Cushmans, but many Cushman dealers refused to market a "foreign" machine. However, collectors prize the Cushman Vespa because it is relatively rare.

Bankruptcy of Vespa's American importer due to two expensive product liability lawsuits, increased competition from Japanese manufacturers, and certain states passing so-called "green laws" caused a withdrawal from the US market in late 1981.

During 1981-2001, despite an absence of United States domestic sales, Vespas continued to have a core group of enthusiasts who kept vintage scooters on the road by rebuilding, restoring, and adding performance enhancing engine parts as the stock parts would wear out.

Vespa returned to the US market in 2001 with a new, more modern style ET series, in 50 cc two and four stroke, and 150 cc four stroke. According to the Motorcycle Industry Council, U.S. scooter sales increased fivefold over six years, swelling from 12,000 units in 1997 to 69,000 units in 2002. Vespa sales in the U.S. increased 27 percent between 2001 and 2002. The 65 "Vespa Boutiques" scattered throughout the U.S. gave scooterists a place to buy, service, and customize Vespa scooters, and outfit themselves in everything from Vespa watches and helmets to Vespa jackets, T-shirts, and sunglasses. Vespa restarted its American sales effort, opening its first boutique on Ventura Boulevard in Sherman Oaks, Calif.

In light of vastly increasing US sales, Vespa developed the GT, offered 200 cc four stroke and a 125 cc variant in Europe. In 2004 Vespa reintroduced a modernized PX 150 to the US. In the fall of 2005, Piaggio offered their largest Vespa scooter model ever, the 250 cc engined GTS250 available in Europe with ABS.

[edit] Rest of the world

Bangkok: Vespa in business mode

Vespa acquired popularity beyond Europe and North America. When looking to expand into markets outside of Europe and North America, it was common for Vespa to partner with, or license certain models to already existing manufacturers. Though the motorcycle industry has been and still is dominated by Japanese companies, Vespa still has a small but significant markets. While details are sometimes hard to come by, especially in some markets, some information is known.

[edit] India

Piaggio first licensed the production of Vespa scooters in India to Bajaj Auto in the 1960s. In 1971, Piaggio's license was not renewed as a part of Indira Gandhi's privatization programs. After the collaboration ended, Bajaj continued to produce scooters of its own design, namely the Chetak, using design and engineering cues it had gleaned from the earlier affiliation.

Another Vespa partner in India was that of LML Motors. Beginning as a joint-venture with Piaggio in 1983, LML, in addition to being a large parts supplier for Piaggio, produced the P-Series scooters for the Indian market. In 1999, after protracted dispute with Piaggio, LML bought back Piaggio's stake in the company and the partnership ceased. LML continues to produce (and also exports) the P-Series variant known as the Stella in the U.S. market and by other names in different markets.

Piaggio, in 2007, announced plans to reenter the Indian market. This time, however, Piaggio plans to do so with a wholly owned subsidiary.

[edit] Taiwan

Vespa has had various partnerships and presence in Taiwan. In 1965 Taiwan Vespa Co. Ltd was licensed for Vespa scooter production. From 1972 to 1982 Vespa entered into a collaboration with manufacturer PGO. In 1978 Vespa entered into a collaboration with TGB, which to some extent, continues to this day (namely with CVT transmission production).

[edit] Indonesia

A company known as Dan Motors Vespa produced Vespas under license for the Indonesian market.

[edit] Vintage restorations from other countries

The resurgence in interest in vintage motor scooters has also spawned the scooter restoration industry, with many restored Vespas being exported from Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia to the rest of the world.

[edit] Racing

In the 1950s and early 1960s, Vespa and Lambretta scooters were raced competitively against motorcycles, often winning the races. In the mid 1960s, motorcycle engines became larger and faster, and a gap was created—along with varying cc classifications. Since the 1980s, Vespa and Lambretta racing has grown into a serious sport in the United States. There are various classes in the United States, depending on the racing association. They are generally:

  • Small Frame Class: Open class up to 152 cc's
  • Automatics Class
  • Specials Class
  • Stock Class: Large-frame Vespa and Lambretta 180 & 200 cc scooters.

[edit] Vespa models

There have been 138 different versions of the Vespa; today there are five models in production: the classic, manual transmission PX; and the modern CVT transmission S, LX, GT, and GTS.

1969 Vespa Rally 180
1963 VBB Standard 150

[edit] Historic

  • Paperino – the original prototype made in 1945 at Biella
  • Vespa 150 TAP – A Vespa modified by the French military that incorporated an anti tank weapon.
  • VNC Super 125
  • VBC Super 150
  • VLB Sprint 150
  • VBA Standard 150
  • VBB Standard 150
  • 125 GT
  • V9A
  • VNA
  • VNB 125
  • Vespa U - U is for utilitaria (English - economic). 1953 model with a price of 110 mila Lire (about US$175), 7,000 were produced
  • GS 150
  • SS 180
  • GS 160
  • Standard 90 (3 spd)
  • Standard 50 (3 spd)
  • SS50 (4 spd)
  • SS90 (4 spd)-90 SS Super Sprint
  • 150 GL
  • 90 Racer
  • 125 TS
  • 100 Sport
  • 125 GTR
  • 150 Sprint
  • 150 Sprint Veloce (Vespa Sprint)
  • 180 SS Super Sport
  • Rally 180
  • Rally 200
  • 125 Nuova (VMA-1T) - Prelude to Primavera
  • Primavera 125 also ET3 (3 port version)
  • PK 50
  • PK 50 XL
  • PK 50 Roma (Automatic)
  • 50 S
  • 50 Special
  • 50 Special Elestart
  • 50 Sprinter / 50 SR (D)
  • 50 Special Revival (Limited to 3000 Italy-only numbered units, released in 1991)
  • COSA 1 - 125cc, 150cc, 200 cc
  • COSA 2 - 125cc, 150cc, 200 cc
  • P 80 / P 80 E (France)
  • P 80 X/PX 80 E (France)
  • PK 80 S / Elestart
  • PK 80 S Automatica / Elestart
  • PK 100 S / Elestart
  • PK 100 S Automatica
  • PK 100 XL
  • PK 125 XL / Elestart
  • PK 125 S
  • PK 125 E
  • PK 125 automatica (automatic transmission)
  • P 125 X
  • PX 125 E/Electronic
  • P 200 E
  • PX 200 E FL
  • PX 200 Serie Speciale (Limited to 400 UK-only numbered units)
  • T5 / Elestart (5 port engine 125 cc P series)
  • T5 Classic (5 port engine 125 cc P series)
  • T5 Millennium (5 port engine 125 cc P series) (Limited to 400 UK-only numbered units)

[edit] Recent

  • ET2 50 - 2stroke
  • ET4 50 - 4stroke
  • ET4 125 (Euro Model)
  • ET4 150 (Euro Model)
  • ET4 150 (US model)
  • ET8 150 (Eastern model)
  • GT 125 (Granturismo 125)
  • GT 200 (Granturismo 200)
  • PX 125
  • PX 150 (reintroduced to US and Canadian Markets in 2004)
  • PX 200

[edit] Current

2008 Vespa LX150
  • LX 50
  • LX 125
  • LX 150
  • LXV 50 (60th anniversary variant of LX50)
  • LXV 125 (60th anniversary variant of LX125)
  • GT 60° 250 cc Limited Edition. 999 produced worldwide in unique colours and each one receiving a commemorative badge, personalized with the owner’s initials. Features the front fender mounted headlight, shared only with the GTV 250.
  • GTS 125
  • GTS 250ie
  • GTS 250 ie abs
  • GTS 250 Super
  • GTS 300 Super (2008)
  • GTV 125 (60th anniversary variant of GTS 125)
  • GTV 250 (60th anniversary variant of GTS 250) Features the fender mounted headlight as a tribute to the original Vespas.
  • PX 30 125 (A limited edition, only 1000 produced to celebrate the 30 years of the P range[14])
  • S 50 and S 125 new model 2007, introduced at Milan Motorshow November 2006
  • S 150 (2008)
  • Zafferano 50cc and 125cc (A limited edition, only 200 produced)[15]

[edit] Electric vehicles

[edit] Hybrids

Piaggio/Vespa is developing hybrid scooters. There are two models in the works, based on the popular Vespa LX 50 and the beefier Piaggio X8 125.[16]

[edit] Specials

One-offs and special machines:

  • Montlhéry – produced in 1950 to break world records on the French circuit of the same name. It smashed 17 records in 10 hours
  • Torpedo – 1951 125 cc special with counter-opposing pistons. Dino Mazzoncini set the world record on the kilometer at an average of 171 km/h

[edit] See also

  • Lambretta – another Italian motor scooter company
  • Vespa 400 – a car also made by Piaggio

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ "Piaggio Group Launches Market Expansion Plans". Rider Magazine. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  2. ^ History of Lambretta Lambretta Club of Great Britain
  3. ^ a b Vespa - A Story of Success
  4. ^ "Vespa: City-Mobile, Italian Style". Retrieved 2007-12-29. 
  5. ^ Vespa Scooter
  6. ^ Scooter news and reviews, published by Frank Giovinazzi
  7. ^ La ´avispa´ más moderna - Sociedad -
  8. ^ DolceVita: Vespa's 50th
  9. ^ Photogallery - TrovaCinema - la
  10. ^ Autosoviet: VYATKA
  11. ^ Tech Analysis 1997 Vespa 50cc ET2
  12. ^ Vespa - it still has that buzz Sunday Times. March 13, 2005.
  13. ^[dead link]
  14. ^ Scooter Infos : Essai du VESPA PX30 125
  15. ^ "Vespa Official Web Site". Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  16. ^ "Vespa Unveils Hybrid Scooters". TreeHugger. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 

[edit] References

  • Boni, Valeri. Vespa. Pub: Rizzoli International Publications, 1 Feb 2007. ISBN 0-8478-2936-7
  • Brockway, Eric. Vespa: An Illustrated History. Pub: Haynes Manuals Inc, 16 Aug 1999. ISBN 1-8596-0443-9
  • Giorgio Sarti, Giorgio. 1946–2006: 60 Years of the Vespa. Pub: J H Haynes & Co Ltd, 29 June 2006. ISBN 1-8442-5313-9
  • Jean Goyard, Jean & Soler, Bernard. The A–Z of Classic Scooters: The Illustrated Guide to All Makes and Models. Pub: J H Haynes & Co Ltd, 18 Jan 2007. ISBN 1-8442-5390-2